This appendix is copied from:
The New West Nile Virus Epidemic: Bioterrorism? -Or Mother Nature (Again)?
Alan Cantwell, Jr., MD
Diseases; Accident of Nature or Man-Made Illnesses?
The new epidemic of West Nile Virus encephalitis in America
West Nile virus: Out of Africa? Or out of a virus laboratory?
Secret U.S. military biowarfare experiments on human populations
Genetic engineering and species transfer of new killer viruses
Killer Germs for Sale
Was West Nile virus deliberately seeded into the environment?
West Nile Virus encephalitis is yet another new infectious disease that has
mysteriously appeared in the
In the 1970s it was thought that many infectious diseases had been banished from
the industrialized world. But, remarkably, over the last two decades more than
30 new "emerging diseases" have appeared in various places. Some of
the better-known diseases include AIDS, Legionnaire's disease, toxic shock
syndrome, Lyme disease, hepatitis C, "mad cow
disease," hanta virus, various new encephalitis and hemorrhagic viruses,
Lassa fever, and Ebola virus. (New controversial diseases like chronic fatigue
syndrome and Persian Gulf War Illness affecting veterans,
are not included in the government's list of "emerging diseases.") In
addition, older diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, and cholera, have
re-emerged in more virulent and drug-resistant forms. After eighty years of
steady declines in infectious disease, the mortality rate from infectious
disease in the
Health officials place the blame on increased global travel and globalization, population growth and movements, deforestation and reforestation programs, human sexuality (in the case of HIV), and increased human contact with tropical mini-forests and other wilderness habitats that are reservoirs for insects and animals that harbor unknown infectious agents.
Nowhere in the official list of causes is the fact that for many decades millions of animals and innumerable vials of infectious material have been shipped around the world for commercial and biological warfare purposes. This world trade in deadly agents, coupled with the gene-splicing technology developed in the 1970s, has increased the dangers of new disease outbreaks. In addition, many new viruses have been passed around between various species of animals, and some of these viruses have been adapted to human tissue. This has resulted in the production of new laboratory diseases that have potential biowarfare capabilities. The biowarfare implications of all these scientific "advances" have led some conspiracy-minded people to suspect that the hand of man might be responsible for the outbreak of one or more of these newly emerging diseases.
The anthrax mailings that followed the
On the first anniversary of the anthrax attacks, Barbara Hatch Rosenberg
(who chairs the Federation of American Scientists Working Group on Biological
Weapons) confirms that the strain and properties of the weaponized
anthrax bacteria found in the letters originated within the U.S. biodefense program. "Government officials recognized
that the anthrax source was domestic less than two weeks after they learned of
the letters, and nothing in their investigation has led them to say
otherwise," writes Rosenberg.
Rosenberg sounds like a conspiracy theorist when she concludes: "that given the origin of the anthrax and the warnings contained in the letters, the perpetrator's motive was not to kill but rather to raise public fear and thereby spur Congress to increase spending on biodefense. In this sense, the attacks have been phenomenally successful." ("Anthrax attacks pushed open an ominous door," Los Angeles Times, 9/22/02).
No doubt a public trial of the perpetrators would open a Pandora's Box of government biowarfare secrets that would shock the public.
West Nile virus infection in humans first broke out in New York City in August 1999. The first sign of the WN epidemic occurred in early July when many birds died mysteriously. Half the crows in the New York City area died, as well as some exotic bird species housed at the Bronx zoo. The virus has an affinity for some species of birds; and the mosquito acts as a vector for the virus. Thus, the virus spreads from birds to mosquitoes, and the virus is spread to humans and other animals via mosquito bites. A few weeks after the bird kills, the first human cases of encephalitis appeared in local hospitals in the northern Queens section of the city. By September, nine of 25 infected horses with WN virus died in Long Island.
Although the virus is contagious between birds, the disease is not contagious between humans. It is estimated that only 20% of infected people will develop a mild flu-like form of the illness; but 1 in 150 people will develop a severe form of the disease with mental confusion, headache, swollen glands, high fever, severe muscle weakness, and the tell-tale symptoms of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Mild cases last a few days; severe cases can last several weeks.
In 1999, the disease was totally confined to the New York City area, with 62 cases and 7 deaths. As many as 10,000 wild birds died. In the year 2000, there were 21 cases and two deaths; in 2001 there were 56 cases with 7 deaths. By October 8, 2002 the CDC had reported a cumulative total of 2768 cases of WN virus with 146 deaths; and it is estimated that as many as 200,000 people are infected nationally.
Until 2002 the virus was confined to states in the eastern half of the country. By the summer of 2002, all but 6 of the lower 48 states reported WN virus in birds, mosquitoes, animals or humans.
Also by 2002 the CDC confirmed that a transplant patient became infected by WN virus after having received organs from a Georgia accident victim infected with the virus. There was also evidence that the virus could be transmitted by an infected mother to her infant during breast feeding. Shockingly, it was announced that West Nile virus was in the nation's blood supply, and there is no blood screening test available to test for the new virus.
At first, infectious disease experts believed that the St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus was the cause. Oddly, this endemic virus occasionally causes mild outbreaks of disease in other areas of the U.S., but no cases were ever seen in New York. At the Bronx zoo, veterinary pathologist Tracey McNamara suspected a different virus because the SLE virus was not known to kill birds. Trained at Plum Island (see later), the pathologist suspected a connection between the bird kills and the human cases, but the Centers for Disease Control rebuffed her concerns. In September, officials re-instituted extensive spraying over New York in attempts to kill the mosquito population and control the encephalitis epidemic.
It was only through McNamara's heroic efforts to enlist the aid of biologists at other national labs, as well as at Fort Detrick, that it was finally determined on September 24, that the virus was indeed WN virus - a virus that had never been seen in America - and a virus for which there was no testing available in any NY state laboratory.
WN virus was first discovered in 1937 in encephalitis cases in Uganda, in East Africa. African cases tend to be a mild, and the virus there does not affect animal and bird populations to any significant degree. In fact, the ability of WN virus to infect and kill birds has only been noticed very recently. Could this indicate that the virus has been genetically-altered or 'weaponized' for biowarfare purposed during the many decades that it has been available for study in virus laboratories?
Mild outbreaks of WN have occurred in Israel in 1951-1954 and 1957, and also in South Africa in 1974. However, since the mid 1990s, outbreaks of increasing frequency and severity have appeared in Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Israel, and Russia, and have been strangely accompanied with a large number of bird deaths. A Romanian epidemic, reported in 1996, infected 90,000 people and caused 17 deaths.
Scientists have determined that the closest viral "relative" of the New York 99 strain of the WN virus is a strain of WN virus that circulated in Israel from 1997-2000. The NY99 strain has remained stable for the past 3 years.
Health authorities suspect the virus entered the U.S. via travelers from the Middle East, or via a stray mosquito on an airplane. Other researchers claim the virus arrived with African animals or birds placed in zoos. But, in fact, the WN virus has been housed in U.S. labs for decades, and has been openly sold to researchers around the world.
It is hardly a secret that the WN virus, along with dozens of other infectious agents, was sold and shipped by the National Type Culture Collection (in Rockville, Maryland) to Iraq during the 1980s when the U.S. was on friendlier terms with Saddam Hussein.
From the very beginning of the WN virus outbreak, there were rumors that the disease outbreak was bioterrorism, but these rumors were denied by health officials. CDC spokesperson Barbara Reynolds told CNN that "the possibility of bioterrorism is at the bottom of the list for how some outbreak may have occurred. It appears Mother Nature is at work." (CNN report, 10/11/99).
Various new theories of origin still appear in the press. For example, a Los Angeles Times editorial (9/28/02) proclaimed that "scientists think (the virus) may have arrived in the early 1980s when Asian tiger mosquitoes traveled in tire casings from Japan to Houston." (One wonders who supplies the press with these bizarre and undocumented stories.)
None of these theories has deterred Vermont Senator Patrick Leahy from urging federal officials to determine if the introduction of WN virus is a terrorist attack. On September 12, 2002, Leahy declared: "I think we have to ask ourselves: Is it a coincidence that we're seeing such an increase in WN virus - or is that something that's being tested as a biological weapon against us." Leahy is no stranger to bioterrorism, having received an anthrax-laden letter at his Washington office a year earlier.
The current presence of WN virus in the blood supply poses a potentially serious threat. Receiving WN virus by a blood transfusion undoubtedly infects the body with a larger dose of virus than a dose received from an infected mosquito. High-risk people for WN virus infection include elderly, debilitated, immunodeficient people (like cancer, AIDS, and transplant patients) and the very young. Furthermore, people who require blood transfusions are not in the best of health and should be considered "high risk" as well. Certainly the arrival of the virus in the warmer southern states, where mosquitoes are active year-round and where many elderly retirees reside, is not a good omen.
Currently, all blood is tested for syphilis, as well as viruses such as HTLV-1 and 2, HIV-1 and -2, and hepatitis B and C virus. A blood screening test for WN virus may be available within a year, and a vaccine might be developed in three years. But, at present, there is no treatment or cure for WN virus disease.
Secret U.S. military biowarfare experiments on human populations
A July 24, 2000 Report ("The West Nile Virus Wake Up Call") from the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee dismisses the idea of WN virus infection as biowarfare, although the CDC was criticized for its "tunnel vision" and its failure "to expect the unexpected." The Committee concluded that: "The next outbreak of an infectious disease - whether naturally occurring or deliberately inflicted - may not be so forgiving." (The 2001 anthrax attack proved to be the next "deliberately inflicted" biowarfare attack.)
It is surprising that the U.S. government quickly eliminated bioterrorism as a cause for the WN outbreak, particularly when the government has a long and well-documented history of biowarfare experimentation against unsuspecting citizens.
In the 1950s the U.S. military planned a project to cripple the Soviet economy by killing horses, cattle, and swine, with biowarfare weapons developed from exotic animal diseases. The laboratory at Plum Island, off the coast of Long Island, New York, is the Army's repository for viruses derived from the most dangerous animal diseases in the world. According to Norman Covert, base historian and public information officer at Fort Detrick, only a handful of scientists were aware of this project. "In many cases there were only maybe five people who knew what was going on in weapons research. People in one lab didn't know what happened in the next lab, and they didn't ask." Details of these Plum Island animal experiments were classified as secret until 1993. ("Plum Island's shadowy past: Once-secret documents reveal lab's mission was germ warfare," Newsday, 11/21/93)
During the 1950s and 60s secret military biowarfare attacks on unsuspecting civilians took place in many parts of America. The most notorious was a six-day attack on San Francisco in which clouds of potentially harmful bacteria were sprayed over the city. Twelve people developed pneumonia due to the infectious bacteria, and one elderly man died from the attack. This attack was not revealed to the public until years later when classified documents were finally released ("Army germ fog blanketed S.F. for 6 days in '50 test," Los Angeles Times, 9/17/79).
In other classified experiments, the military sprayed bacteria in New York City subways, in a Washington D.C. airport, and on highways in Pennsylvania. Biowarfare testing also took place in military bases in Virginia, In Key West (Florida), and off the coasts of Southern California and Hawaii ("Army used live bacteria in tests on U.S. civilians," Los Angeles Times, 3/9/77).
The Army also experimented on its own soldiers. Project Whitecoat, a code name for a series of biowarfare experiments that took place at Fort Detrick between 1954 and 1973, utilized about 2,300 Seventh-Day Adventist volunteers who were exposed to germs causing tularemia, malaria, anthrax, Queensland fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, encephalitis, and a host of other exotic diseases. The experiments were aimed at preventing, diagnosing, and treating these diseases, as well as the development of vaccines. No one died in the experiments, but critics contend that the men were essentially coerced into participating in research that, despite military assurances to the contrary, could have been used to produce biowarfare weapons. ("Adventists' faith put to test; 2,300 soldiers were used in germ-warfare experiments," The Washington Times, 10/19/98)
In preparing America for nuclear attack during the Cold War years following World War II, thousands of U.S. citizens were used as unsuspecting guinea pigs in over 4,000 secret and classified radiation experiments conducted by the Atomic Energy Commission and other agencies, such as the Department of Defense, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the Public Health Service (now the CDC), the National Institutes of Health, the Veterans Administration, the CIA and NASA (see "The Nuking of America; Secrets and Lies of America's Cold War," Paranoia, Issue #18, Winter 97/98).
Not only is the public kept ignorant of biowarfare research, but biowarfare "accidents" are officially covered-up, downplayed, or blamed on animals. For example, the Russians finally revealed the truth about an epidemic of anthrax that caused at least 68 deaths in 1979 in the city of Sverdlovsk, 850 miles east of Moscow. The outbreak was officially blamed on eating meat from infected animals. Officials at the nearby top-secret biowarfare compound maintained that the anthrax spores were spread among cattle through ingestions of contaminated bone meal, and that the people who got anthrax acquired it through the illegal sale of diseased cattle from private farms. In 1992, Russian President Boris Yeltsin finally acknowledged the real truth. The cause was not "natural," but due to the accidental escape of spores of weapons-grade anthrax produced by the nearby Biowarfare installation. ("Soviet germ lab caused epidemic in '79," Los Angeles Times, 6/16/92)
The full extent of the U.S. government's experiments on unsuspecting people will probably never be known because many incriminating documents remain Top Secret or classified. Other documents are often declared as missing, destroyed, or "unavailable," in an attempt to hide the truth from the public.
As the 1970s began, the U.S. Army's biowarfare program intensified, particularly in the area of genetic engineering research. This genetic manipulation of cells and infectious agents, and the mixing and transferring of viruses between various animals (including monkeys, chimps and other primates) resulted in the creation of many "man-made" infectious agents for research, commercial and biowarfare purposes.
In order to placate the fears of critics, President Richard Nixon renounced germ warfare, except for "medical defensive research." But despite the 1972 treaty forbidding nations from developing or acquiring weapons that spread disease, the biowarfare buildup continued. Scientists understood that to create a defense against bioweapons, it was also necessary to study offensive biowarfare agents. As a result, biowarfare research continued worldwide, despite the ineffectual treaty.
In 1971, Nixon transferred a major part of the Army's Biological Warfare Unit at Ft. Detrick over to the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Thereafter, secret biowarfare experimentation continued under the cover of bona-fide cancer research. Utilizing the latest genetic engineering techniques, virologists forced cancer-causing viruses to "jump" from one species of animal to another. In the hazardous transfer of dangerous infectious agents, scientists developed new forms of cancer in animals, as well as AIDS-like immunodeficiency diseases in cats, primates, and other lab animals. (See also AIDS: An Explosion of the Biological Time Bomb?: Biological Warfare in the Modern Era (2000), by Robert E Lee.) In 1981, a decade later, a new and mysterious immunodeficiency disease called AIDS suddenly appeared exclusively in gay men, the most hated minority in America.
In November 1973 a high-level conference entitled "Biohazards in Biological Research" convened at Asilomar, near Pacific Grove in Northern California. The cancer virologists freely admitted there was no foolproof way to prevent the escape of these highly dangerous viruses into the community. Leaving no doubt that new and dangerous viruses were being created, Robert W Miller of the NCI warned that "laboratory workers have not only heavy exposures to known viruses, but also to the viruses that they invent."
AIDS: A designer disease with a genetically-altered laboratory virus?
During the 1970s the NCI's Special Virus Cancer Program brought together leading national and international medical scientists in a unified attempt to uncover cancer-causing viruses. In this same decade many human and animal viruses were adapted for commercial and biowarfare purposes. And at the end of this decade new "emerging viruses" began to appear.
Some AIDS researchers believe that this Special Virus Cancer Program (and its covert connection to America's biowarfare program) spawned HIV, an immunosuppressive virus that was subsequently seeded into the U.S. homosexual community via the government-sponsored experimental hepatitis B vaccine program (1978-1981). These experiments in Manhattan , Los Angeles, and San Francisco, utilized only highly promiscuous, healthy white gay and bisexual men as guinea pigs. Shortly after this experiment began, the first cases of "gay-related immune deficiency disease" (later known as AIDS) erupted in New York City. (See my article "Blaming gays, blacks and chimps for AIDS," Paranoia, Issue #27, Fall 2001).
The idea of AIDS as a man-made virus that was deliberately seeded into the American gay and African black population in the late 1970s is considered by most scientists to be a joke. There are many theories pertaining to the origin of HIV, but man-made AIDS is always trashed as paranoid "conspiracy theory." However, as already noted, previous biowarfare experiments against civilians have all been clouded in secrecy. Furthermore, the scientific "facts" surrounding these unethical programs were often tainted with government misinformation, disinformation, propaganda, cover-ups, outright lies, and more than a touch of conspiracy.
Scientists pooh-pooh the idea of a "man-made" virus, even though the laboratory transfer of viruses from one species to another always results in a "man-made virus." When a lab virus is transferred to another species its molecular structure is altered. This occurs because the transferred virus picks up new genetic material from the cell of the new species that it infects.
Originally, Robert Gallo, the co-discoverer of HIV, theorized that the AIDS virus originated from African green monkeys. Now government scientists claim the "ancestor" of HIV actually originated from a chimpanzee virus.
Two leading molecular biologists, Beatrice Hahn and Betty Korber, have used computerized "molecular clocks" to construct elaborate viral "family trees" (which few people outside the field can understand) in an attempt to prove how HIV descended from chimps in the African rain forest. Significantly, Beatrice Hahn worked in Gallo's lab in the early 1980s while he was popularizing his erroneous green monkey theory; and Betty Korber works at her computer at the Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico, home of America's nuclear weapons program and the birthplace of the notorious secret human radiation experiments. These two government scientists, along with the support of an adoring media, have apparently convinced the scientific world that HIV originated in chimps in Africa. The possibility that HIV originated from a biowarfare lab or from widespread species-jumping viral experiments in primates is simply never considered.
Big questions regarding the origin of AIDS remain unanswered by molecular biologists. For example, if HIV has been around for decades, centuries, or millennia, as these scientists proclaim, where were the AIDS cases in Africa in the 1960s and 70s? Scientists simply offer as "proof" a dried-up old HIV-positive blood specimen (based on fragments of molecular structure) from an unidentified African blood donor in 1959. With this "proof," we are supposed to believe that HIV existed in Africa for a long time, even though there was no AIDS epidemic in Africa until the early 1980s (after the first AIDS cases appeared in American gays in 1979).
AIDS experts tells us that HIV can sometimes have a long incubation period (up to 10 to 20 years); and that it is possible to get HIV even through one sexual contact with an infected person. With the long-incubation period, why are there no "old" positive HIV blood specimens (and no AIDS cases) in the U.S. before 1978-1979 (the year the gay vaccine experiments began and the year the first AIDS cases appeared)? How is it biologically possible for a supposedly black, heterosexually-transmitted disease "out-of-Africa" to suddenly (with no incubation period) transform itself into a "gay disease" in New York City, Los Angeles, and San Francisco? Particularly when there were no cases in Africa in the late 1970s!!!
Why only young healthy white gay men? Why no blacks, women, old people, immuno-suppressed people, children, heterosexuals, among
the first cases? Surely with all the sexual activity of heterosexuals in
America (and HIV in the nation's blood supply in 1979), one would expect some
early cases to appear in straight people as well. There may be another good reason
why AIDS started exclusively as a "gay disease" in America, and why
it is predominantly a heterosexual disease elsewhere. It is now recognized that
there are 10 different "subtypes" of HIV, which reflect differences
in the genetic composition of the AIDS virus. Subtype B is the form of HIV that
exists in America; this subtype is not prevalent in Africa. (Another
reason to suspect that HIV in gays did not come from Africa.)
The subtypes in Africa have a higher potential for heterosexual transmission than Subtype B, which spreads more easily with anal sex and IV drug use. Laboratory studies, undertaken by Dr Max Essex of the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, have demonstrated that subtypes C and E infect and replicate more efficiently than subtype B in certain cells of the vagina, cervix and the foreskin of the penis - but not on the wall of the rectum. Essex contends that these subtypes are spread more efficiently through vaginal intercourse. Subtype B helps explain why the U.S. epidemic spread quickly among homosexual men and IV drug users, while in Africa and Asia, subtypes C and E have spread rapidly among heterosexuals. ( http://www.aids.harvard.edu/news_publications/har/fall_1998/fall98-5.html )
The "introduction" of Subtype B (via gay vaccine experiments) explains why AIDS began as a "gay disease" in the U.S., and why the remaining subtypes primarily affect heterosexual populations elsewhere in the world. In my view, all these subtypes further suggest that HIV is a manipulated virus introduced into different populations by the "hand of man," rather than a genetically-diverse virus descended and derived from primates in the African jungle by "Mother Nature."
Further complicating bioterrorism is the sale of deadly microbes to anyone and any country with the cash to buy them. From 1985-1988, when the U.S. was still friendly with Saddam Hussein, his Education Ministry purchased 70 shipments of anthrax, West Nile virus, and other disease-causing organisms from the American Type Culture Collection, in Maryland. At that time, such shipments were entirely legal and received quick approval by the U.S. Commerce Department. ("Germ library's inventory is making detractors queasy," Los Angeles Times, March 16, 1998.) Even after Hussein gassed the Kurds in 1988, and even after the Gulf War, U.S. officials continued to supply Iraq with biochemical warfare ingredients ("U.S. was a key supplier to Saddam," Seattle Post Intelligencer, Sept 24, 2002). The CDC also sent WN virus and numerous other biological agents to Iraq during the years 1984 and 1993. (http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/9/23/210336.shtml)
The Riegle Report (May 25, 1994) further details biological and biochemical shipments from the U.S. to Iraqi government agencies. It was later learned that these microorganisms exported by the U.S. were identical to those the UN inspectors found and recovered from the Iraqi biowarfare program. (http://www.gulfweb.org/bigdoc/report/riegle1.html )
On October 18, 2001, the CDC issued an unprecedented alert asking physicians to watch out for cases of smallpox, plague, botulism, tularemia, and even "emerging" hemorrhagic African viruses that cause Ebola and Marburg disease. Before the terrorist bombings, virologists were blaming animals in the wild. Now it is clear that the more likely threat comes from crazy scientists who will use any deadly infectious agent as a potential biowarfare agent if it suits their national, political, or religious agenda.
Could the new outbreaks of WN virus be a result of decades of animal experimentation and manipulation of the African virus in various laboratories worldwide? Surely over the past 60 years new strains of WN virus have been developed and "weaponized" by genetic and/or biowarfare engineers. Once a virus like WN is "introduced" into the environment it can spread rapidly on its own. Already the WN virus causes disease in humans and animals unlike that seen in Africa back in the 1930s. In late September 2002, there were various media reports claiming that some WN patients were developing signs and symptoms of polio, even though that disease is caused by a different virus. Could these never-before seen manifestations of WN virus be an indication that the virus has been altered in a laboratory? Could this more deadly form of WN virus reflect manipulation, not by Mother Nature, but by the hand of man?
Besides acting as a wake up call, what would be the advantage of introducing WN virus into the American environment? For a foreign terrorist, WN virus would be a poor choice of bioweapon. As a killer of old and sick people, it would not be a terribly effective biowarfare weapon. However, if the virus was introduced domestically as a "test" (like anthrax), the killing off of old and sick people would certainly aid the fiscal problems of Social Security and Medicare.
The World Trade Center bombing of 1993 did not serve as wake up call for the second WTC bombing of 9/11. Similarly, the introduction of WN virus into the New York population in 1999 did not serve as a wake up call for bioterrorism because it was followed two years later by successful anthrax letter attacks.
How many more wake up calls with bioterrorism will be required before health officials stop looking in rain forests and African animals for the origin of these new epidemic diseases - and begin to look at the world trade in deadly infectious agents, and the insanities of biowarfare and biowarfare research, as reasons for our current new plagues?
Biowarfare agents are designed solely to kill large numbers of civilians. And any country that is willing to employ and deploy these agents should be fully aware that - What Goes Around, Comes Around.
© 2002 Dr. Cantwell is a frequent contributor to Paranoia. His books on
man-made AIDS are available from Book Clearing House @ 1-800-431-1579. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
In this article it is only possible to discuss a tiny bit of evidence pointing to AIDS as a man-made disease. My two books, AIDS and the Doctors of Death (1988), and Queer Blood: The Secret AIDS Genocide Plot (1993), provide extensive documentation for the man-made origin of AIDS. Previous issues of Paranoia have also carried articles on this research; and anyone with Internet access can go to google.com and type-in "AIDS biological warfare" or "alan cantwell," and encounter many web sites on man-made AIDS by various researchers, all of which has been ignored by the scientific community and the major media.