APPENDIX II-BU:  Communities Who Do NOT Use Adulticides to Control Mosquitoes:  Appendix C to “West Nile Virus and Mosquito Control Practices.”


This appendix is copied from:‑07‑2.htm






Appendix C Revised - January 2007


Additions to the report:  West Nile Virus and Mosquito Control Practices




This Appendix C - Revised is an update of the December 2002 report.  The revision contains recently added jurisdictions marked (07) and includes updated URL links to web sources


The appendix shows jurisdictions recently found to be using non-spray adulticide policies and significant spray restrictions, combined with a variety of non-toxic alternatives, compiled from web sources.


The final page shows a composite list, which encompasses both the recent and previously reported

non-spray jurisdictions.  You may refer to the full December 2002 report to review further details:


Detailed descriptions


  1. Black Hawk County, Iowa, 

Health officials ready for mosquito season

Mark Linda, a Black Hawk County environmental health manager said that health officials will be using sentinel chickens, and testing dead birds as surveillance for West Nile infections. They will continue to apply larvacide in Waterloo, Cedar Falls and Evansdale. The larvacide is targeted at unborn mosquitoes and has been proven to work more effectively than spraying.  Regardless of requests, Mr. Linda said, the county will hold firm on its decision not to spray for adult mosquitoes. The Courier          


  1. Broome County, NY

Larviciding throughout Broome County                                           (07)

From the year 2000 to date, Broome County, NY has been applying larvicides throughout the County. A number of towns are included in the program as well as the campus of Binghamton University, a part of the State University of New York (SUNY). Dr. Michael Leonard, Medical Director for University Health Services, Binghamton University, said prevention is the best protection.  Larviciding helps prevent the spread of West Nile virus by averting the development of adult mosquitoes.

Broome County has announced dates, periodically, for scrap tire drop-offs in three towns, Binghamton, Vestal, and Kirkwood, NY.  The announcements stated:

            “Tires can accumulate small pools of water where adult mosquitoes will lay their eggs.        Over the course of one breeding season, thousands of mosquitoes can be generated        from just one tire.”

The county also promotes the removal of standing water, keeping rain gutters free of leaves, and maintaining swimming pools with filtration and pool chlorination.


  1. Chapel Hill, N.C. -  Public Works - Mosquito Control Website

Does Chapel Hill Use Chemicals to Control Mosquitoes?

No!  Adulticide chemicals are not used.  The Town uses a biological larvicide called “Bactimos” (Bti) to treat mosquito breeding grounds that contain mosquito larvae. Mosquito larvae eat the Bti and die as the enzymes destroy the mosquito larvae.  However, Bti does not affect humans, fish, plants or other aquatic wildlife.



  1. Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina -  Environmental Health Website

County Mosquito Control Program

The program's mosquito control philosophy is a preventive, long term one whereby they interfere or stop the mosquito's life cycle before the bugs become biting adults capable of transmitting disease and creating community nuisances. Public education activities and extensive larviciding are performed, providing treatment or elimination of standing water capable of supporting mosquito populations.


  1. Fairfax County, Va. - Health Dept - Mosquito control website 

Extensive larviciding

The Fairfax County environmental health staff has taken a proactive approach in combating West Nile virus by treating storm drain catch basins with a larvicide, which inhibits mosquito breeding. The first treatment cycle typically begins in May each year, It’s estimated there are 75,000 to 100,000 catch basins in the County.

"Breaking the breeding cycle of mosquitoes early in the season means fewer mosquitoes will survive to reproduce," said Jorge Arias, PhD, supervisor of the county's West Nile virus program.  "The first round of larvicide treatments that will cover most of the county should be completed by mid-June," said Dr. Arias.

In the history of West Nile virus in Fairfax County, particularly in the past three years the use of spray insecticides against adult mosquitoes has not been necessary.

Publicity for removal of standing water, in seven languages:

The Health Department has produced educational materials in seven languages - Chinese, English, Korean, Spanish, Vietnamese, Farsi and Urdu - to inform residents about simple steps they can take to help reduce mosquito populations around their homes. The materials can be downloaded from the Health Dept’s West Nile website.


  1. Fowlersville, Michigan         November 2006

Voters asked to renew mosquito tax for larviciding                                  (07)

Funds from the mosquito tax will continue funding the town’s contract with Advanced Pest Management to spray larvicide in catch basins, and near swampy and wooded areas to prevent mosquitoes from reproducing.  The mosquito tax is nothing new to Fowlerville residents who had previously renewed the tax four years ago.  At least four Michigan counties also have voter-approved taxes designed to help control the insects.  Larviciding is a preventative measure applied in public areas and is on call for any resident needing treatment around their home.  Channel 7 reported that 74% voted in favor of the tax in November’s election.      Detroit News


Hamilton County, (Cincinnati) Ohio - Environmental Health Division Website

What You Should Know About West Nile Virus and Mosquitoes

Health District sanitarians use the “dunks” type of larvicide and residents are also instructed how to use them.  Their public information program includes brochures from the South West Area Regional Mosquito Task Force (SWARM).  “Drain, Dunk and Protect” is their slogan for handling standing water, and personal protection steps.


Illinois –the University of Illinois and Seven towns: Champaign, Urbana, Savoy,  Danville, Mahomet, Homer and Monticello

                  Champaign Public Works Website, & News Article

Towns declare war on mosquitoes

The University and seven Illinois towns use larvicides placed into breeding areas to prevent the larvae from becoming adult mosquitoes.  “We decided to kill them before they become adults," said Savoy Village Manager, Dick Helton.  The towns find this method to be a less expensive technology than spraying.  "We don't spray like some communities do," said Barb Stiehl, Public Works Dept. Assistant Director.


Lake Norman State Park, Catawba, North Carolina 

“Taking the bite out of the lake”  May. 25, 2005 

Crews battling mosquito larvae on Lake Norman for Duke Power know that the lake's biggest mosquito problems don't come from the lake, but from standing water in boats, birdbaths, planters and puddles on the shore. Those areas get treated with a larvicide called Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, or BTI (when the standing water can’t be emptied).  Extensive testing has shown BTI to be nontoxic for humans, posing no threat to wildlife and the environment.  The crews also clear the lake of bait cups and other debris that can trap water and breed mosquitoes. One member of the crew said,  "Everybody else calls it trash, we call it (mosquito) source reduction."  The program started in 1923, (82 years ago) said Ken Manuel, the Duke Power scientist who oversees the program. 

Charlotte Observer, click on Advanced Search of Archives, (to find & purchase the article)


Historic Note:  Early larviciding methods employed in Panama in 1904-1905 enabled construction of the Panama Canal to proceed, bringing malaria and yellow fever under control. This led the Americans to succeed in building the canal, while prior efforts by the French had failed.

“Sanitary workers scoured the canal area looking for water sources where mosquitoes could breed. By spraying a thin film of oil on the water’s surface, they smothered any mosquito larvae that might be living there.” 

Reference Smithsonian Library:   

In contrast to the crude oil used in those early days, today’s larvicides are virtually non-toxic and are environmentally friendly. The other activities for sanitation, clean-ups of standing water, installing window screens, etc. then employed in Panama are the same basic prevention methods used today.


Lyndhurst, Ohio and South Euclid (07), Ohio                    

Spraying banned by Ordinances                                   

These two cities banned the spraying of pesticides (adulticides) to control mosquitoes in July, ‘03 and in June ‘04, respectively.  Instead of spraying, they are advising residents to eliminate standing water, the breeding ground for mosquitoes. The Lyndhurst City Council noted:  “the more effective way of controlling the mosquito populations is by larvicide treatment and thorough education....”  And also that, “the dangers of WNV are minimal and affect a very small segment of the population . . , [however] that the long-term health and environmental risks of spraying with synthetic pesticides poses a much greater risk.”

Shaker Heights and Chagrin Falls, Ohio have also chosen not to have pesticide spray trucks spraying their neighborhoods.



  1. MetroParks of the Toledo Area, Ohio   April 26, 2004, Mosquito Fact Sheet

To Spray or Not To Spray?                                                                              (07)

Metroparks has taken the position not to spray pesticides to kill adult mosquitoes. The park system’s policy is based on several studies indicating that the chemicals used in adulticides, include hormone disrupters, neurotoxins and possible carcinogens, are not only toxic to mosquitoes, but can also harm humans, wildlife (especially aquatics like fish and amphibians) and plants. 

To regulate the mosquito populations without spraying, Metroparks uses a biological control

larvicide, Bti,  Note:  The MetroPark system includes 11 parks totaling over 9,000-acres



  1. Milford, Connecticut, May 20, 2005, May 25, 2005

Taking action to prevent West Nile

The Mayor of Milford, James Richetelli knows the mosquito problem first-hand. As a teenager he had a job spraying for them.  He recently stated to News Channel 8: "Things have changed a lot since then. Back then we sprayed. We don't do that anymore. We treat the marshes."  The town hires All Habitat Services to spread larvacide in places where water collects.  Milford Health Director Dennis McBride said "Real mosquito control takes place at the larval stage. The point is to get them before they get in the air."  The city used to spray years ago, but spraying has since become politically and environmentally incorrect.  "This is more effective than spraying," McBride added.  And residents need to check and empty standing water around their own property for the program to be successful, officials said.    News Channel 8    Milford Mirror


  1. Porter, Indiana   (Also, Chesterton, In.)  June 25, 2003 

Porter council decides to forego mosquito spraying

The Porter Town Council decided Tuesday night that the risks of spraying to eliminate mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus outweigh any benefits.
Council member Jennifer Granat said the best method for now is education - making sure homeowners keep their property and gutters free of stagnant pools where the insects breed, frequently refilling birdbaths and keeping water in ornamental ponds clean, filtered and circulating.  Councilman Mike Liebert said he had talked with two Illinois towns about their results with spraying. "It just doesn't work," he said. Granat also said that Chesterton, Ind. and many other area communities have chosen not to spray. "The pesticides don't discriminate between the good insects and the bad insects," she said.   Search 2003 for “Porter mosquito spraying” (to find & purchase the article)


  1. Tecumseh Township, Michigan,  Township Public Notice, 2006    (07)

Treatments to stop mosquito larvae again funded for 2006

Tecumseh Township is funding a mosquito control program with Advanced Pest Management again this year.  They will be treating (in dry form only, no spraying) the standing waters. This form of treatment is to stop the larva from developing.

This year’s program is scheduled to begin as early as 4/14/2006 and will run through the summer and early fall months. If you have standing water on your property for over 7 days and you would like this treated please call direct to Advance Pest Management at the following number: 877-276-4714 (toll free). There is no additional cost to any resident.   


  1. Washtenaw County, Michigan,   2005 West Nile Report - Executive Summary  

Most municipalities in Washtenaw County did no adult mosquito spraying           (07)

Washtenaw County’s West Nile Virus Task-Force recommends that municipalities in the County apply larvicides to storm water catch basins and other standing water sites again in 2005, as in prior years for mosquito control.   

Many municipalities, including universities participated in the larvicide efforts, and most municipalities in the County “did not do any adult mosquito spraying.”


Programs with significant spray restrictions:


  1. Bryan, Texas,  City of Bryan Website  

City says mass-fogging in neighborhoods is a bad idea                                         (07)

Eight reasons are discussed to explain why the spraying of adulticides is a bad idea.  Some of these are: 

            < Spraying is the least-effective measure, as acknowledged by the CDC;   

            < Natural predators of the mosquitoes are harmed, leading to more abundance of mosquitoes;

            < Adverse environmental effects, including water contamination, fish kills, birds sickened or killed     especially their babies, beneficial insects killed, honey-bees, dragon flies, etc;

            < Human health impacts, both immediate and long-term.  The most vulnerable groups include          pregnant women, the elderly, those with asthma, cancer and immuno-supressed individuals.

The City’s efforts are aimed at source control and reducing standing water. Larvicide blocks and dunks are applied to standing waters by city employees. Citizens are encouraged to purchase mosquito dunks from local businesses. Educational materials (in English and Spanish) promote the steps for personal protection and draining standing water in back yards.  Grants of $200 are given to neighborhood associations to reimburse the costs of draining or treating standing waters with dunks.  Note: Fogging is done only with hand-held units restricted to small areas such as culverts.


Fulton County  (Atlanta area), Ga.County Health and Wellness website

Catch basins are treated with larvicides in areas with high populations of senior citizens. The county recommends use of Dunks, and provides pick up of scrap tires to eliminate them as breeding sources.  Homeowner check-lists and brochures are part of their public information program.   The county’s policy restricts spraying to be done only if there were an epidemic and an extreme rate of West Nile virus upon approval of the County Board of Commissioners.


Programs in other countries:

  1. China, Beijing  April 7, 2005

Eliminating breeding grounds, as advance preparation for 2008 Olympics

Professor Tongyan Zhao of the Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology  said that with a series of measures and persuading people to be aware of mosquito-breeding grounds, the number of insects can be reduced without pesticides.  In addition to a program for eliminating the usual wet areas in neighborhoods and businesses such as tire and recycling facilities, they are adopting a practice of removing the roots after cutting bamboo to correct a local source of water-holding receptacles that breed mosquitoes.


Hong Kong, China - May 28, 2005       (Also announced June 19, 2004)

Prevention: Anti-mosquito efforts stepped up  

From January to April, a number of weekly anti-mosquito and clean-up operations were conducted to remove potential mosquito breeding grounds. And today operations were stepped-up.  Staff was supplemented by contractors’ workers taking part. These operations include clearing stagnant water, filling tree holes and bamboo stumps, and removing debris.  For any stagnant water that could not be eliminated immediately, larvicidal oil is applied to control mosquito larvae.

Vietnam - 09-Feb-2005, May 25, 2005  

A Natural Larvicide  (Mesocyclops)

Professor Brian Kay (Royal Brisbane Hospital, Au.) and Vu Sinh Nam (Ministry of Health, Vietnam) led the effort to protect people from dengue fever in Vietnam thanks to the implementation of a non-toxic strategy to control mosquitoes in the country.  Targeting containers that produce the most mosquito larvae, their strategy involves inoculating large water storages with crustaceans called Mesocyclops, which feed on mosquito larvae.  Community education and activities, such as the collection of discarded containers, also formed an important part of the strategy.  No cases of dengue fever have been reported in any of those villages since 2002.  In May, 2005, this larval control was extended to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.  The announcement stated that the tiny predator, a marine creature named Mesocyclops, can eat and kill hundreds of mosquito larvae a day that breed in water containers and other standing pools.

Lancet Newswise (registration required)






January, 2007


Below is the composite list of jurisdictions found to be using non-spray adulticide policies and significant spray restrictions, combined with a variety of non-toxic alternatives, compiled from web sources. 


The composite list encompasses both the recent and previously reported non-spray jurisdictions. 


New jurisdictions added are marked below as (07).  URL’s have been updated for the (05) listings and links should all be currently available.  You may refer to the December 2002 report to see detailed descriptions of the one’s marked (02).   The URL is:


Listed alphabetically:



Adams County (City of Natchez),  Miss. (02)

47 communities in Anne Arundel Cnty, Md.


Arkansas County, Arkansas  (02)

Arlington County, Virginia   (02)

Atlanta area, Fulton County, Ga. (’05)

Auburn University, Alabama  (02)

Bibb County and Macon, Georgia   (02)

Black Hawk County, Iowa (05)

Bristol-Burlington Health District, Conn. (02)

Broome County, NY (07)

Bryan, Texas (07)

Catawba, North Carolina  (’05)

Chapel Hill, N.Carolina (05)

Chagrin Falls, Ohio  (02)

Champaign, Illinois  (05)

Charlotte, Mecklenburg Cnty, N.C. (05)

Chesterton, Indiana   (05)

Clifton Park, NY   (02)

Cookeville, Tenn.  (02)

Cowley, Kansas   (02) 

Crawford County, Arkansas   (02)

Danville, Illinois  (05)

Fairfax County, Virginia  (05)

Fort Worth, Tarrant County, Texas  (02)

Fowlerville, Michigan (07)

Fulton County, Atlanta area, Ga. (05)

Garland County, Arkansas  (02)

Hamilton County, Cincinnati area, Ohio (05)

Highland Village, Texas  (02)

Hot Springs, Arkansas. (02)

Homer, Illinois  (05)

Lapeer County, Michigan  (02)

Lake Norman State Park, N.Carolina (05)

Lakewood, Ohio  (02)

Lyndhurst, Ohio  (05)

Macon, Bibb County, Georgia  (02)

Mahomet, Illinois  (05)

Mecklenburg Cnty, Charlotte, N.C. (05)

MetroParks, Toledo, Ohio (07)

Milford, Conn.  (05)

Monticello, Illinois (05)

Montgomery County, Maryland  (02)

Moreau, NY (Saratoga County)  (02)

Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tenn.   (02)

Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi  (02)

Northumberland, NY (Saratoga County)  (02)

Porter,  Indiana  (05)

Riverdale Park, MD  (02)

Rockland County, NY  (02)

Rutherford County, Tenn.  (02)

Savoy, Illinois  (05)

Sebastian County, Arkansas (02) 

Shaker Heights, Ohio  (05)

Sharpsburg, Md. (C&O Historic Park)  (02)

South Euclid, Ohio  (07)

Tarrant County, Fort Worth, Texas  (02)

Tecumseh Township,  Michigan (07)

University of Illinois (05)

University of Maryland, College Park   (02)

University Park, Maryland  (02)

University of Notre Dame, Indiana  (02)

Urbana, Illinois  (05)

Washington D.C. (02)

Washtenaw County, Michigan (07)

Wilton, NY (Saratoga County)  (02)


In Other Countries:

China, Beijing (05)

       “       Hong Kong (05) 

Vietnam  (05)